Internet of Things Patterns
This is an excerpt of the pattern that was first published in [1].

Mains-Powered Device

Icon of the Mains-Powered Device pattern

Some devices require a lot of power or are stationary. Power them by connecting them to mains power.




You have a device that needs to be powered. It may be an Always-On Device that has to run continuously to fulfill its intended function. It may also be a device that does a lot of local processing, which requires large amounts of energy.


You need to power a stationary device, which requires a lot of energy over its lifetime.


  • Energy Requirements: The device needs a large amount of energy over its lifetime. Making it a Lifetime Energy-Limited Device is not an option because the device needs more energy over its lifetime than current batteries can provide in a reasonable form factor without being replaced or recharged. Making it an Energy-Harvesting Device is not an option because ambient energy does not deliver the required power.

  • Environmental Constraints: The environment of the device may have some constraints, such as not having a suitable source of ambient energy, thus making it not possible to use an Energy-Harvesting Device.

  • Maintenance: Making it a Period Energy-Limited Device is not an option because replacing or recharging a battery in frequent intervals is too much effort.

  • Mobility: The device does not have to be mobile.

  • Infrastructure: Mains power is available in many places, but voltages and outlet designs vary depending on location.


Connect the device to mains power. Transform higher voltages to a lower voltage that you can use. Convert alternating current to direct current and filter it to get smooth voltage.

Solution sketch of the Mains-Powered Device pattern

Solution Details:

This is an excerpt of a previously published pattern. The full pattern can be found in [1].



Related Patterns:

Known Uses:

  1. L. Reinfurt, U. Breitenbücher, M. Falkenthal, F. Leymann, and A. Riegg, “Internet of Things Patterns for Devices: Powering, Operating, and Sensing,” International Journal on Advances in Internet Technology, vol. 10, no. 3 & 4, pp. 106–123, 2017. Available at